Human beings are the only creatures on the earth who are able to communicate with each other through the medium of language. But humans take this gift to another extent. Distance, time, and physical existence of the person don’t matter in communication these days because they build a communication system through which they can communicate or share data like images, videos, text, files, etc with their loved ones anytime anywhere. Communication is defined as a process in which more than one computer transfers information, instructions to each other and for sharing resources. Or in other words, communication is a process or act in which we can send or receive data. A network of computers is defined as an interconnected collection of autonomous computers. Autonomous means no computer can start, stop or control another computer.
Components of Data Communication
A communication system is made up of the following components:
Therefore, there are some set of rules (protocols) that is followed by every computer connected to the internet and they are:
As we know that data communication is communication in which we can send or receive data from one device to another. The data communication is divided into three types:
Communication channels are the medium that connects two or more workstations. Workstations can be connected by either wired media or wireless media. It is also known as a transmission medium. The transmission medium or channel is a link that carries messages between two or more devices. We can group the communication media into two categories:
1. Guided Media: In this transmission medium, the physical link is created using wires or cables between two or more computers or devices, and then the data is transmitted using these cables in terms of signals. Guided media transmission of the following types:
1. Twisted pair cable: It is the most common form of wire used in communication. In a twisted-pair cable, two identical wires are wrapped together in a double helix. The twisting of the wire reduces the crosstalk. It is known as the leaking of a signal from one wire to another due to which signal can corrupt and can cause network errors. The twisting protects the wire from internal crosstalk as well as external forms of signal interference. Types of Twisted Pair Cable :
2. Coaxial Cable: It consists of a solid wire core that is surrounded by one or more foil or wire shields. The inner core of the coaxial cable carries the signal and the outer shield provides the ground. It is widely used for television signals and also used by large corporations in building security systems. Data transmission of this cable is better but expensive as compared to twisted pair.
3. Optical fibers: Optical fiber is an important technology. It transmits large amounts of data at very high speeds due to which it is widely used in internet cables. It carries data as a light that travels inside a thin glass fiber. The fiber optic cable is made up of three pieces:
2. Unguided Media: The unguided transmission media is a transmission mode in which the signals are propagated from one device to another device wirelessly. Signals can wave through the air, water, or vacuum. It is generally used to transmit signals in all directions. Unguided Media is further divided into various parts :
1. Microwave: Microwave offers communication without the use of cables. Microwave signals are just like radio and television signals. It is used in long-distance communication. Microwave transmission consists of a transmitter, receiver, and atmosphere. In microwave communication, there are parabolic antennas that are mounted on the towers to send a beam to another antenna. The higher the tower, the greater the range.
2. Radio wave: When communication is carried out by radio frequencies, then it is termed radio waves transmission. It offers mobility. It is consists of the transmitter and the receiver. Both use antennas to radiate and capture the radio signal.
3. Infrared: It is short-distance communication and can pass through any object. It is generally used in TV remotes, wireless mouse, etc.
Physical objects used to communicate including mass media (radio, television, computers, film, etc.). Traditionally, media are the source of credible information in which contents are provided through an editorial process determined by journalistic values and where editorial accountability can be attributed to an organization or a legal person. In more recent years the term ‘media’ is often used to include new online media.
Media and Information Literacy