Which of the following is a grouping of characters into a word a group of words or a complete number?

type customer = record

customer_id : string;

customer_name : string;

customer_street : string;

customer_city : string;


* View level: application programs hide details of data types. Views can also hide information (such as an

employee’s salary) for security purposes.

View of Datahe other hand a group of bits called a byte represents a single character which can be a

letter, a number or another symbol. A grouping of character into a word, a group of words or a complete

number is called field. A group of related fields comprises a record; a group of records of the same type

is called a file. A group of related files ma



A database is an organized collection of facts. In other words it is collection of information arranged and

presented to serve an assigned purpose. An example of data base is a dictionary, where words are

arranged alphabetically. Another example is a telephone directory, where subscriber names are listed in

an alphabetical order. Similarly a box of cards with names and addresses written as mailing list, then the

box and its contents form a mailing database. The collection of these cards will be termed as database.

In order to keep database updated we may need to perform the operations like adding, removing, editing

information, etc. In case of telephone diary where we note down the names, address, and phone

numbers of our friends. This is also a type of database. When we make our new friends and add the

information about them in our diary, it is equivalent to the adding data to the database. If address of our

friend changes and we note new address in our diary, it is editing a database. If we want to send a letter

to our friend then we look into the diary to locate the address, it is searching a database. In case of

telephone diary contains a very large number of names, addresses, and phone numbers. Moreover, the

names are not arranged in any order. Thus it would be very difficult to locate the names, address, and

phone numbers of our friends. Thus it is essential to arrange the names in some order, say

alphabetically, to make the search easy. If the number of friends gets larger, managing the database

manually becomes difficult. A database management software package is a helpful tool in such a

situation. Any organization, bank, manufacturing company, hospital, university, requires huge amount of

data in some or the other form. All such organizations needs to collect data, manipulate them and store

them for future use. All such type of organizations requires data for number of purposes like; 1.

Preparing sales report ,

2. Forecasting sales,

3. Preparing accounts reports,

4. Getting medical histories of patients.

Thus we can say data are very vital corporate resources. The amount of data used these days in

organizations can be measured in the range of some billions of bytes or characters. The financial

statement involved is also very high. Many organizations have become critically dependent on the

continued and successful operations of database. THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA


Database technology cuts through many of the problems of traditional file organization. A more rigorous

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