Which of the following ships were the first ocean going

Further stories about the journeys made by Australian immigrants can be found at Melbourne's Immigration Museum and other cultural heritage organisations. A wealth of additional information is available online and in print.

Cultural Heritage Organisations

Immigration Museum
museumsvictoria.com.au/immigrationmuseumOld Customs House, 400 Flinders Street, Melbourne, VictoriaTelephone 03 9927 2700 or Education Bookings 03 9927 2754

Exhibitions explore stories of people from all over the world who have migrated to Victoria since the 1830s. Education programs and Immigration Discovery Centre provide resources for all ages.

Migration Museum
migration.history.sa.gov.au82 Kintore Avenue, Adelaide, South AustraliaTelephone 08 8207 7580

Exhibitions focus on immigration history, cultural diversity and settlement in South Australia. Education programs actively promote cultural and ethnic tolerance.

National Museum of Australia
www.nma.gov.auLawson Crescent, Acton Peninsula, Canberra, ACT

Telephone 02 6208 5000

Online Resources

Australian Bureau of Statistics
A range of information and statistics online, including: Migration Australia (series 3412.0), recent Year Books and the Population Clock.

Australian Centre for the Moving Image (ACMI)
Exhibitions include Transiting Bonegilla short films by women who passed through this post-war Migrant Reception Centre, and an extensive catalogue of films and videos available for loan. These include Mike and Stefani, a documentary-style production released in 1952 to publicise Australia's participation in the international program to re-settle the 'Displaced Persons of Europe' after World War II.

Australian Human Rights Commission
An organisation set up to foster greater understanding and protection of human rights in Australia and to address the human rights concerns of individuals and groups.

Citizenship in Australia: A Guide to Commonwealth Government Records
guides.naa.gov.au/citizenshipMaterials held by the National Archive, collected under themes such as nationality and citizenship, naturalisation, the treatment of aliens, assimilation, concepts of racial and national identity. Available in print: 114p, 1999, ISBN 0 642 34408 6, No. 10.

Also More People Imperative: Immigration to Australia, 1901–39

An overview and guide to records in the National Archives collection on Commonwealth immigration policies from 1901 to 1939, including both those that encouraged and those that restricted immigration. Available in print: 236p, 1999, ISSN 1326 7078, No. 7.

Department of Home Affairs
Includes current Australian immigration information: www.australia.gov.au/information-and-services/immigration-and-visas

Documenting a Democracy
This Australian National Archives website tells the story of Australia through the documents which give our national, state and territory governments the right to govern. It includes copies of Immigration Acts and related documents grouped by date, State or theme (e.g. Immigration Restriction Act: www.foundingdocs.gov.au/item-sdid-87.html).

Horizons: The peopling of Australia since 1788
Extracts from an ongoing exhibition at the National Museum of Australia about the 10 million people who have migrated to Australia since 1788, where they come from, and how migration has shaped the nation we know today.

Immigration and Nation-Building
Section of the Federation Story project produced by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation for Australia's centenary of Federation.

The papers of James Günther, 1837–42
Vol 3 Transcripts of Letters and Journals sent to the London Corresponding Committee of the Church Missionary Society, 1837-42. Letters 1-3 include first hand accounts of a weather-affected voyage to Australia in 1887.

Monash University Centre for Population and Urban Research
Publications include People and Place, which presents information on migration patterns and related topics (past editions are free to download).

National Archives of Australia
Extensive records and information services, including Making Australia Home – a service that provides migrants and their descendants with copies of records that document their family's arrival and settlement in Australia: www.naa.gov.au/collection/explore/migration/home.aspx

National Film and Sound Archive (formerly ScreenSound Australia)
An extensive catalogue of films and videos is available online; many can be viewed at NFSA Offices or Access Centres. Education programs are also available, including Voices and Visions based on the film Mike and Stefani (as for ACMI listing above).


The Age

The Australian

The Courier-Mail


The Sydney Morning Herald

The West Australian

Origins: Immigrant Communities in Victoria
An overview based on census data 1854–2006, with the immigration histories of 70 communities presented in English and community languages.

Parliament of Australia
Includes current parliamentary committee reports on migration, related issues such as detention centres, Hansards and much more, including historical information.

Refugee Review Tribunal
Database of published reports, together with information about the tribunal and its functions; includes a review of decisions made by the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (previously Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs - DIMA).

State Library of Victoria
A wide range of catalogues and databases online, providing access to digital images of Manuscripts and Pictures (photographs, prints and drawings).

See also:

National Library of Australia

Northern Territory Library

State Library of New South Wales

State Library of Queensland

State Library of South Australia

Libraries Tasmania

State Library of Western Australia

United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)
Up-to-date news, facts and statistics about refugees world-wide.

Victorian Railways
Includes a database of photographs with historic images of Sandridge, Railway and Station Piers.

Resources in Print

Coffey, B R (ed), Sunburnt Country: Stories of Australian Life, Fremantle Arts Press; ISBN 186368364X
A selection of autobiographical stories and short fiction about Australia and Australians of all ages, including some who made the journey to Australia.

Cole-Adams, J and Gauld, J, Australia's Changing Voice, Rigby Heinemann, 2003; ISBN 0 73123 430 8
Before European settlement, over 250 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages were spoken in Australia. Although many of these languages are extinct, a similar number of other languages from around the world are spoken here today. Includes examples of Australian colloquial language from various decades. Also: Our Voices multimedia series for primary students, exploring historical and contemporary issues in Australian life.

Lewis, Robert, Destination Australia: the Migrant Story Study guide, ScreenSound Australia, National Screen and Sound Archive. (Now National Film and Sound Archive)
The story of immigration to Australia – from 1901, when the Immigration Restriction Act was created with Federation, until the late 1970s and 'multiculturalism'.

Gleiztman, Morris. Boy Overboard, Puffin Australia 2002; ISBN 0141308389Jamal and Bibi have a dream – to lead Australia to soccer glory in the next World Cup. But first they have to face landmines, pirates and storms as the family embarks on a journey, from Afghanistan.

Also: Girl Underground, Puffin Australia 2004; ISBN 0143300466

Bridget wants a quiet life, then a boy called Menzies makes her an offer she can't refuse – a daring plan to rescue two kids, Jamal and Bibi, from a desert detention centre.

Pung, Alice. Unpolished Gem, Black Ink Australia 2006; ISBN 186395158X
The arrival of the author's Cambodian-Chinese family in Melbourne in the 1970s, growing up in Footscray between two cultures, and the constant battle of balancing parents' expectations with one's own.

Ships and boats are two of the oldest types of transportation and were first built thousands of years ago. Not only have ships and boats been used for transportation throughout history, they have been used for a number of other reasons including to transport cargo, fishing, as a type of defense from armed forces, sports, leisure, and relaxation. Today, ships, boats, and yachts are built using advanced technology and materials, differing greatly from those that have been used throughout history.

Which of the following ships were the first ocean going

Timeline of Ships, Boats, and Yachts

4000 BC: The ancient Egyptians used reeds to build what are thought to be the first sailing boats in the world. The reed boats had sails and a mast and were used on the Nile River

2500 BC: Around this time, the ancient Egyptians began to build wooden boats that were able to withstand sailing across oceans.

1550 BC: Around this time until about 300 BC, the Phoenicians of the ancient Canaan civilization (the area that is now Syria and Lebanon), used something called a galley. The galley was a sailing vessel that was powered by man and was used to both fight and trade with neighbors.

1000 AD: The Vikings started to build longboats. These were larger ships that had sails and up to sixty men whose job it was to row the ship. The boats were large but were narrow and long, allowed them to travel along rivers as well as the open sea.

1100 AD: The Chinese began to use boats that they called junks. Junks were boats that featured a rudder for steering in addition to watertight compartments and battens located on the sails that served to make them much stronger. The Chinese junks were used as transport and fighting ships, and were in use long before western ships that included such features.

1450: Starting around 1450 and for several centuries, wooden ships with three or four masts were in use by several different countries. These masted sailing ships were used as trade vessels, by explorers, to transport cargo, and as battleships.

1660: Charles II of England chose to use a yacht to carry him to the Netherlands from England for his restoration. Previously, yachts had been used by the Dutch navy. After Charles II used a yacht, they became vessels that were known to transport important persons.

1800s: Clipper ships were built in the 1800s and were fast sailing ships, that featured tall masts, and slim, long hulls.

1818: The Black Ball Line was a shipping company that began offering passenger service from the United States to England.

1819: The first ships that were built using steam power began to cross the Atlantic Ocean. Steamships used a combination of wind and steam power to move.

1845: It was in the mid-1800s that the first ocean liners built from iron began to appear. The ocean going liners were also driven by a propeller instead of sails like many earlier ships.

1880: River boats that were driven by steam were called stern wheelers. Other similar boats featured paddle wheels on each side and were called paddle steamers. Paddle steamers were mainly used for transport on rivers.

1910: Ships that were previously powered by burning coal started to be converted to diesel power, and started to use oil as opposed to steam.

1955: Hovercraft boats were created by a man named Christopher Cockerell. The boats were designed to float on cushions of air and the engine was designed to blow air into these cushions providing both propulsion and lift.

1980: In the 1980s, container ships began to be more widely used to transport cargo. The ship was designed to carry the containers stacked on the deck. Modern cargo ships can normally hold up to one thousand containers at a time.

1990: The 1990s saw the rise of passenger cruise ships that were used to take people on holidays. Cruise ships featured shops, restaurants, and other types of recreation.

Which of the following ships were the first ocean going

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